Access road
A temporary or permanent access route.

An individual's appreciation of the forest landscape for its unique and varied components without regard to its utility or monetary value.

The intentional act of combining agriculture and forestry to create integrated and sustainable land-use system.

The planting of rows of trees and/or shrubs (single or multiple) at wide spacing, creating alleyways within which agricultural crops or horticultural crops are produced.

A site preparation method using special equipment to form soil and forest litter into a ridge six to 10 inches high and 3 to 4 feet wide, on which tree seedlings are planted.

Best Management Practices (BMP's)
Effective economical practices associated with silvicultural operations that minimize nonpoint source pollution (soil erosion and stream sedimentation).

Broad base dip
A shallow depression constructed diagonally across a road to remove storm water runoff. Also referred to as a "rolling dip".

Buffer strips
A strip of established or undisturbed vegetation located downslope from forest activities to filter out sediment and reduce runoff.

Carbon Sequestration
Long-term storage of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, underground, or in oceans, so that the buildup of carbon dioxide concentration, a principle greenhouse gas, reduces or slows.

Clear cut
The silvicultural practice of harvesting all merchantable trees from a specified area in one operation.

An imaginary line on the surface of the earth or a line on a map connecting points of the same elevation.

Controlled burning
The planned use of fire under specific environmental conditions to achieve a variety of forest management objectives such as reducing hazardous fuel levels, controlling competing vegetation, improving wildlife habitat, and preparing forest sites for regeneration activities.

A strip (width varies with terrain)of land used to connect habitat types together and provide cover for wildlife to pass.

Crop trees
A group of managed trees located within a specific area that will be harvested.

The branches and foliage of a tree; the upper portion of a tree.

A metal, plastic or concrete pipe which surface water flows through under roads and trails.

Removal of trees along the edges of a road to reduce the shade and allow faster drying of the road surface.

Den tree
A living or dead tree with a cavity suitable for animals to use for shelter, escape or as a nursery.

A site preparation practice used to prepare the soil for reseeding or encourage regrowth of native plants (annuals, legumes, forbs, and perennials).

The variety of life and natural processes in a given area. Diversity is categorized by the number of species, the variety in the area's plant and animal communities, the genetic variability of the animals or a combination of these elements.

An interest or right to limited use of land granted by the owner to another party.

The area where two habitat types come together.

Energy Crop
An agricultural or tree crop grown for the specific purpose of being converted into heat, power, or transportation fuels

Ephemeral stream
A stream that flows during, and for short periods, following a precipitation event. The stream may or may not have a well-defined channel.

A forest containing trees that are about the same age. Pine plantations are even-age forests.

The process of cutting trees.

The process of applying nutrients to amend the soil and improve tree growth and vigor.

Naturally occurring (ie. a river) or man-made barrier (ie. road) free of combustible materials to prevent the advance of a ground fire.

Herbaceous, early successional vegetation, that are an important food source for may species of wildlife.

Forest Farming A specific form of agroforestry that involves the cultivation of high-value specialty crops under the protection of a forest canopy that has been modified to provide the shade level appropriate for a specific crop.

Forest floor
A layer of accumulated dead organic material, consisting of partially or fully decomposed leaves, needles, twigs, etc., at the surface of a forest soil.

Any land with at least 10 percent coved by trees of any size, or having had such tree cover and not currently developed or under cultivation.

Forest fragmentation occurs when large, contiguous tracts of forestland are broken up into smaller areas of non-contiguous forestland, often referred to as “patches”.

Any chemical or mixture of chemicals intended to prevent the growth of, or kill, undesirable vegetation (terrestrial and aquatic; woody and non-woody).

Any chemical or mixture of chemicals intended to repel, control, or kill any insect or other arthropods.

Logging deck
A centralized location where logs are gathered, delimbed and cut to length if necessary, and loaded on to log trucks for transport.

A food source for wildlife. Soft mast include most fruits with fleshy coverings, such as persimmon or black gum seed. Hard mast refers to nuts, such as acorns and pecans.

A layer of organic material covering the soil to reduce soil erosion, conserve soil moisture, and minimize soil temperature fluctuations.

Nonpoint pollution
Water pollution which is: 1) induced by natural processes, including precipitation, seepage, percolation and runoff; 2) not traceable to any one source or point; and 3) controlled using forest best management practices (BMP's).

Mineral elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium that are naturally present, or added as fertilizer.

A forest stand containing too many trees per acre, and is evident from slow growth rate. Overstocking reduces growth and makes a stand more susceptible to attack by disease and insects.

This occurs when undesirable tree species (hardwood sprouts in a planted pine forest) grow faster than the seedlings of the desired species, thereby blocking the sunlight from reaching the crowns of the target species and reducing growth.

Perennial stream
A stream that flows greater than 90 percent of the time, and has a well-defined channel.

Any chemical or mixture of chemicals used to kill pests. A pest may be an insect, plant, or animal.

Presence of substances that impairs or renders harm to life, health and the productivity of the environment, or is offensive to the senses.

Regrowing a forest on a harvested tract of land using artificial (mechanical or hand planting) or natural (seeds or sprouts) regeneration methods.

Riparian Forest Buffers
Riparian forest buffers are a form of agroforestry that involves the natural or re-established streamside forests made up of tree, shrub, and grass plantings. They buffer non-point source pollution typically created by agricultural operations on land adjacent to waterways.

Rock or other large aggregate placed on erodible sites (stream bank or bridge abutment) to protect against the erosive force of runoff or wave action.

Water that flows overland and does not infiltrate the soil.

Site preparation activity using a plow or blade to remove unwanted vegetation by cutting and peeling back the layer of vegetation to expose the bare mineral soil.

The selected area of soil prepared by natural or artificial means to promote germination of seeds and seedling growth.

Seed tree method
A silvicultural practice of even-age natural regeneration. Depending on the site conditions, anywhere from 4 to 10 trees per acre are left standing to provide seed and regenerate the harvested tract. Seed trees should have a well developed root system, a stocky tapering bole, wide deep crown, and a relatively large live crown ratio.

Selection method
A silvicultural practice of uneven-aged forest management whereby individual or small groups of trees are periodically selected and harvested to create openings in the stand. Regeneration is accomplished by natural processes.

Shelterwood method
A silvicultural practice of uneven-aged forest management, and is similar to the selection method. However, the major difference is under a shelterwood management regime, between 20 and 60 of the best trees are left standing per acre and provide the seed for natural regeneration.

The scientific practice of establishing, tending, harvesting, and regenerating a forest stand with desired characteristics.

Silvopasture is a form of agroforestry that combines trees with forage and livestock production.

Site preparation
A forest activity to remove unwanted vegetation and woody material, and to prepare the soil for reforestation.

Transporting felled trees by dragging them behind heavy equipment to the logging deck.

Skid trail
Temporary path used to skid (transport) felled trees to the logging deck.

Soil erosion
Process by which soil particles are detached and transported by wind, water, and gravity to a downslope or downstream location.

Standing dead or dying trees that provide food and shelter for wildlife.

Integrated forest management to protect and enhance wildlife, timber production, recreational opportunities, natural beauty, and soil and water quality for future generations.

Streamside Management Zone (SMZ)
The area adjacent to a perennial or intermittent stream in which vegetation is maintained or managed to protect water quality. The width of the SMZ depends on the slope of the land. The greater the slope the wider the SMZ must be. Trees may be removed from SMZs as long as the stream bed is not disrupted and sufficient vegetation is left to protect water quality.

The value of, or sum paid for, standing timber.

Suspended sediments
Soil particulate matter (mineral and organic) suspended in water that can be seen with the unaided eye.

The replacement of one plant community by another over time.

The systematic removal of selected trees to improve the vigor (health) and growth (volume) of the residual stand, and provide income to the landowner.

Timber cruise
A management activity that involves an inventory (volume, total number, product classes) to determine the value of the standing timber prior to a timber sale.

Timber harvest
Removing merchantable trees from a forest to obtain income from the wood products.

Timber stand
A group of trees of similar characteristics (age, species, product class, location, etc.)

Timber Stand Improvement (TSI)
Improving the quality of a timber stand by removing undesirable trees and competing vegetation to achieve a desired composition (ie. density and species). TSI practices include the use of herbicide, prescribed fire, girdling, or cutting.

Two definitions are: 1) a widened space in a road to allow vehicles to pass one another; and 2) a ditch that drains water off the edge of a roadway.

A forest stand composed of more than two age classes and a range of sizes. Typically the result of both the shelterwood and selection methods.

When the volume per unit area of standing timber in a forest stand is below the optimum level to meet the desired objective (timber, wildlife, etc.).

Water bar
A combination of a shallow depression and berm of soil running diagonally across a roadway to divert water off of the road. Reducing the volume and velocity of water reduces erosion.

The area within a landscape which all runoff collects into a single stream or drainage system.

Uncontrolled fires occurring on forestland, rangeland, or brushland.

Wildlife openings
Areas of early successional vegetation and maintained to provide food, cover, and shelter.

When a tree(s) are "up-rooted" by wind. A concern in recently thinned timber stands and seed tree harvests.